Classical myectomy is the gold standard therapy for patients with severely symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Extended myectomy provides a complete relief from dynamical obstruction and is most effective in the prevention of sudden cardiac death.
At Burjeel Hospital, seven patients underwent extended myectomy in the last 5 years.
A detailed preoperative transesophageal echocardiogram done in the operation theatre. LVOT gradients were assessed both by TEE and simultaneous pressure recording of LV cavity and ascending aorta. All patients were operated while on cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic arrest. A low transverse aortotomy was the incision of choice in all cases. No additional ventriculotomy done in any of these patients. The extent of the hypertrophy is assessed by visual inspection and digital palpation. The muscle mass suitable for myomectomy is clearly defined by classical incisions on the thickened LV septum. All precautions were taken not to damage the aortic annulus and the cusps. The incision was extended towards the LV apex to get complete relief of the obstruction. The excision of the muscle mass was also extended behind the insertion of the mural leaflet of the mitral valve. Almost always we tried to remove the muscle mass in total in single piece. LV cavity was thoroughly washed and inspected well. Both the papillary muscles were completely inspected and all hypertrophied trabeculae as well as hypertrophied papillary muscles were resected. Additional muscle band from the papillary muscle to the septum was found in one case and resected without damaging the papillary muscle.
Again, the LV cavity was assessed both visually and also by digital palpation. While coming off bypass, TEE helped to identify complete relief of the pressure gradient. Four patients had significant mitral regurgitation where leaflet plication was done with no significant post-operative mitral regurgitation. Post-operatively, none of these patients had aortic regurgitation or significant mitral regurgitation or septal perforation or conduction block. One patient had an iatrogenic perforation in the aortic leaflet, which was repaired by pericardial patch. All of them had significant reduction in the pressure gradient on postop TEE assessment. All these patients were regularly followed up by our cardiology team. Two of the patients required elective implantable defibrillator.
In our experience, with the technique of extended myectomy, sustained relief was achieved in surgically treated HOCM patients, without SAM or significant mitral regurgitation, at long-term follow-up. No patient had sudden cardiac death during follow-up till date. Referrals for HOCM surgical interventions are still restricted to severely symptomatic patients with significant LVOT gradients under basal conditions.
HOCM – PATIENT PROFILE
|S.No||Date of Surgery||Age/Sex/Nationality||Symptoms|
|1||24/05/2017||31, Male, Bangladesh||Dyspnea, chest pain|
|2||10/01/2018||54, Female, Philippines||Exertional dyspnea, chest pain and dizziness3|
|3||10/03/2018||23, Female, Pakistan||Exertional dyspnea4|
|4||02/00/2019||55, Male, Syria||Exertional dyspnea5|
|5||03/10/2020||39, Female, India||Fatigue, dyspnea6|
|6||12/10/2020||34, Male, India||Exertional dyspnea7|
|7||17/07/2021||34, Male, Bangladesh||Exertional dyspnea|
HOCM – INTRAOPERATIVE DETAILS
|S.No||LVOT-AO Gradient, TEE||SAM||MR||Procedure||Additional Procedure|
|1||64 mmHg||Yes||Yes||Extended myectomy||MV repair2|
|2||80 mmHg||No||Yes||Extended myectomy||Aortic and mitral valve repair3|
|3||90 mmHg||Yes||Yes||Extended myectomy||MV replacement * outsidesurgeon4|
|4||100 mmHg||Yes||Yes||Extended myectomy||MV repair|
|5||65 mmHg||Yes||Yes||Extended myectomy||MV repair|
|6||140 mmHg||No||Yes||Extended myectomy|
|7||100 mmHg||No||Yes||Extended myectomy|